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A. Ramesh Babu, Y. P. Singh, and R.ok. Sachdeva
A. Ramesh Babu is Senior Scientist (Agriculture Extension); Y. P. Singh is Professor, Division of Agricultral Extension, Indian Agricultural research Institute, New Delhi; and R. ok. Sachdeva is Professor of management and Head, desktop Centre, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, India.
basic conceptsRole of MIS in the management of agricultural extension programmesDesign of a MIS in an agricultural extension organizationNeed for automationOrganization of a databaseNetworking and interactive processingSystem alternate options and evaluation: Centralization versus decentralizationEnd-consumer computingIllustrative computer-based mostly MISSummaryReferences
counsel is a critical useful restheirce within the operation and management of companies. theyll timed availability of valuable suggestions is vital for advantageous efficiency of managerial capabilities akin to planning, organizing, leading, and handle. An information device in a company is like the nervous equipment within the human physique: it is the hyperlink that connects the entire organization's add-ons together and gives for more desirable operation and survival in a competitive atmosphere. indeed, modern day businesses run on assistance.
The time period counsel system always refers to a laptop-based equipment, one it truly is designed to help the operations, management, and decision functions of an organization. suggestions programs in businesses accordingly supply assistance aid for determination makers. information systems encompass transaction processing methods, administration tips techniques, determination aid techniques, and strategic suggestions systems.
assistance consists of facts which have been processed and are significant to a person. A gadget is a group of accessories that operate together to obtain a standard purpose. as a result a administration suggestions device collects, transmits, processes, and shops information on a firm's components, programmes, and accomplishments. The system makes feasible the conversion of these information into management assistance for use by using choice makers in the organization. A management information equipment, hence, produces suggestions that helps the administration capabilities of a firm (Davis & Olson, 1985; Lucas, 1990; McLeod, 1995).
facts versus information
data refers to uncooked, unevaluated information, figures, symbols, objects, events, and many others. facts may theyll be a set of records lying in storage, like a cell listing or census information.
guidance is records which have been put right into a meaningful and beneficial context and communicated to a recipient who makes use of it to make selections. information comprises the communication and reception of intelligence or capabilities. It appraises and notifies, surprises and stimulates, reduces uncertainty, displays extra alternate options or helps get rid of irrelevant or poor ones, and influences people and stimulates them to motion. a part of facts might also represent guidance in a particular context; for example, for those who need to contact ytheir chum, his or her mobile quantity is a chunk of guidance; otherwise, it is only one aspect of records within the phone listing.
computers have made the processing characteristic tons more straightforward. huge portions of information will also be processed promptly via computers aiding within the conversion of statistics to information. raw information enter the equipment and are changed into the device's output, that's, tips to assist managers of their choice making.
traits of counsel
The features of decent counsel are relevance, timeliness, accuracy, can charge-effectiveness, reliability, usability, exhaustiveness, and aggregation degree. assistance is relevant if it leads to better determination making. It could even be critical if it reaffirms a old determination. If it does not have anything else to do along with ytheir problem, it is irrelevant. as an example, counsel in regards to the theyather situations in Paris in January is relevant if you are considering the fact that a discuss with to Paris in January. otherwise, the suggestions isn't principal.
Timeliness refers to the foreign money of the information introduced to the users. foreign money of statistics or assistance is the time gap bettheyen the incidence of an event within the box until its presentation to the user (determination maker). When this amount of time is very brief, they describe the suggestions system as a true-time equipment.
Accuracy is measured through evaluating the records to precise events. The significance of accurate information varies with the classification of choices that need to be made. Payroll assistance have to be actual. Approximations effectively will not suffice. although, a accepted estimate of how much staff time became committed to a particular activity can be all that is needed.
price of information
suggestions has a very good have an effect on on determination making, and hence its cost is closely tied to the decisions that result from its use. suggestions doesn't have an absolute common price. Its value is involving those who use it, when it's used, and in what situation it's used. in this feel, assistance is similar to different commodities. for instance, the value of a pitcher of water is distinctive for someone who has lost his manner in Arctic glaciers than it's to a wanderer in the Sahara wasteland.
Economists distinguish price from can charge or fee of a commodity incurred to provide or procure the commodity. obviously, the cost of a product must be bigger than its charge or price for it to be low in cost.
The concept of normative cost of assistance has been developed by means of economists and statisticians and is derived from resolution conception. The fundamental premise of the idea is that they all the time have some preliminary potential about the prevalence of events that are central to their decisions. additional information may adjust their view of the incidence possibilities and subsequently alternate their choice and the anticipated payoff from the choice. The price of additional information is, hence, the change in anticipated payoff received via reduced uncertainty about the future event.
guidance helps decisions, choices trigger movements, and movements have an effect on the achievements or performance of the organization. If they are able to measure the modifications in efficiency, they will trace the impact of advice, on condition that the measurements are carefully performed, the relationships amongst variables are smartly described, and viable outcomes of beside the point factors are remoted. The measured change in performance due to informational elements is known as the realistic value or published price of assistance.
for most suggestions techniques, in particular these supporting core and suitable administration, the resulting selections frequently relate to hobbies that aren't strictly described and involve percentages that can't be quantified. The determination-making method commonly is imprecise and the outcomes are scaled by using numerous and incomparable dimensions. In such situations, they may additionally either attempt to function a multiattribute evaluation or derive an normal subjective price. The subjective cost reflects americans's comprehensive impact of counsel and the quantity they're inclined to pay for particular counsel (Ahituv, Neumann, & Riley, 1994).
tips as an help to determination Making
Simon (1977) describes the system of resolution making as comprising ftheir steps: intelligence, design, alternative, and evaluation. The intelligence stage encompasses collection, classification, processing, and presentation of data concerning the organization and its atmosphere. here's necessary to establish instances calling for choice. right through the choice stage, the determination maker outlines alternative solutions, every of which includes a group of moves to be taken. The records gathered all the way through the intelligence stage are now used by way of statistical and different fashions to forecast feasible consequences for each and every alternative. each choice can even be examined for technological, behavitheiral, and financial feasibility. in the alternative stage, the choice maker must select some of the alternatives so one can ideal make a contribution to the desires of the firm. previous decisions will also be subjected to evaluate throughout implementation and monitoring to permit the supervisor to learn from mistakes. tips plays a vital position in all ftheir tiers of the decision procedure. figure 1 shows the assistance requirement at every stage, together with the functions carried out at every stage and the remarks loops bettheyen ranges.
Classification of management advice methods
There are a variety of kinds of management suggestions programs. Mason and Swanson (1981) describe ftheir classes of management tips systems: (1) databank tips equipment, (2) predictive suggestions system, (three) choice-making assistance device, and (ftheir) resolution-taking suggestions system. The classification is according to the stage of help that the advice system provides in the process of decision making. Sachdeva (1990) comprehensively items these 4 styles of programs:
Databank information device. The responsibility of this counsel gadget is to observe, classify, and save any item of records which may be doubtlessly effective to the decision maker. Examples of the form of facts that might possibly be recorded in this type of database for a given village, place, or area are as follows:
· variety of farms· number of devices of arable land (hectares, fedans, acres)· typical farm size· quantities of chosen farm inputs applied annually· construction per year on a unit of land for selected vegetation
A 2nd illustration of records that can be recorded in a database (this time involving facts inside to the organization) is as follows:
· number of extension workforce by class and assigned to a specific village, location, or area
· number of work htheirs committed by team of workers to selected issues for a selected village, place, or area
· total extension profits charges and other expenses by using village, vicinity, or area
· number of demonstrations conducted for selected farm technologies through village, area, or area
· number of on-farm trials performed for selected farm technologies through region or area
· variety of radio, television, and print media releases involving selected farm applied sciences by time duration and vicinity or area
determine 1. role of counsel in the choice manner.
each and every of those databases may also be summarized and transformed to single tabular displays of information of pastime to administration. When information from two or more time durations is compared, tendencies can also be accompanied.
Predictive information gadget. This system moves beyond pure statistics collection and the choice of tendencies over time. Predictive tips programs provide for the drawing of inferences and predictions which are critical to decision making. If records from the above examples have been to be used during this method, it is viable to attain tips helpful for making predictions or for drawing inferences. as an example, tables containing right here tips for a given village, vicinity, or enviornment might possibly be produced:
· The ratio bettheyen the variety of farms and the quite a few categories of extension team of workers individuals
· The ratio bettheyen the quantity of farmland and the quite a few categories of extension staff members
· amount of extension financial operating restheirces allocated per 12 months to chosen farmer issues or concerns
· volume of extension monetary materials, each salary and operating charges, allocated per yr to selected extension procedures to solving distinct farmer issues or concerns
counsel received from these kinds of analyses is consistently summarized in a two-way tabular structure. And likewise, the counsel regularly is compared over time. Managers can then use such tips to make predictions, for example to forecast fees of selected undertakings for budgeting functions or as a foundation for predicting consequences if a given trade is made, reminiscent of alternate in the variety of demonstrations with a given exchange in staffing.
resolution-Making counsel equipment. This equipment goes one step extra within the technique of choice making and incorporates the value device of the organization or its standards for settling on amongst options. An extension organization's values are many and diverse. They encompass issues for resolving farmer issues, expanding and proposing for stability of farmer incomes, and improving the first-class of farm lifestyles. hotheyver they additionally together with and presenting for stability of farmer incomes, and enhancing the nice of farm existence. hotheyver they additionally consist of an intent to provide neatly for personnel participants (training, adequate salaries, etc.) and to assist in the procedure of bringing about rural financial development.
table 1. guidance agencies in India's Agricultural Extension system.
types of assistance vital
Extension commissioner, joint commissioners, administrators, joint administrators, and many others. of the directorate of extension, ministry of agriculture
(1) suggestions on human substances, plans, and budgets for quite a few extension capabilities(2) Statewide monitoring and contrast of actions completed
Director of agriculture, further director, joint directors, etc. of the state branch of agriculture
(1) Districtwide assistance on extension programmes, activities, bills, and so forth(2) analysis-extension linkages and coordination with different allied departments comparable to animal husbandry and horticulture
District agricultural officers (DAOs)
(1) counsel on extension supplies and constraints at subdivision and block degrees(2) practising requirements of personnel at subdivision and block levels
Subdivisional agricultural officers
(1) field demonstration programmes, actions deliberate and implemented by means of field-remember specialists (SMSs) (zone) on the block degree(2) Technical programme and constraints identified at the block stage
Agricultural extension officers
(1) performance of VEWs in terms of achievements in extension activities(2) container-stage issue of evaluation of beneficiaries' response to a variety of extension programmes
counsel concerning these quite a lot of attributes helps managers to make more enlightened choices. Examples of the way that an extension company makes use of information from a decision-making advice equipment are as follows:
· exchange in specific farm outputs (yields, practices) following chosen extension activities
· exchange in workforce productivity following selected interventions (in-carrier practising, improved transport, and so on)
· assessment of relative charges and relative effectiveness of option extension birth strategies
· analysis of economic returns to farmers who undertake advised practices as compared to folks that don't
decision-Taking tips equipment. Examples of choice-taking tips systems don't seem to be continually present in an extension firm. here's a call
system through which the tips gadget and the resolution maker are one and the same. administration is so assured in the assumptions included within the equipment that it truly relegates its vigtheir to initiate action to the equipment itself. Airplanes raise computerized pilot methods, which can be an example of a call-taking device. once activated, the device itself keeps the aircraft on route and at the proper speed and altitude (in line with parameters determined through the pilot). an additional illustration of choice-taking counsel techniques is present in modem manufacturing unit creation. In vehicle creation, continuous inventories of ingredients are maintained via computing device as cars stream down an meeting line. Orders are placed instantly via the computing device when extra materials are vital. this is kept away from the intervention of a manager.
The alternative of an appropriate administration assistance device (MIS) class essentially is dependent upon the nature of the choices it supports. whereas unstructured decisions may use MIS-class (I), the particularly structured ones, reminiscent of construction schedules in an business, can also use MIS-category (iv). further, Banerjee and Sachdeva (1995) have a look at that "because the deep constitution of the determination problem becomes more and more understood, they might also move to greater stage of MIS i.e., from MIS-class (I) to MIS-category (ii); and MIS-class (ii) to MIS-class (iii); and so on."
country wide agricultural extension systems, primarily in establishing countries, are usually very giant. for example, in India, the countrywide agricultural extension system employs about a hundred ttheynty five,000 individuals. Extension managers at quite a few tiers want crucial information with the intention to make advantageous decisions. in the absence of such suggestions, they act simplest on the groundwork of their intuition and previous event. records which have been processed, stored, and presented adequately will help them in analysing situations and to make beneficial selections.
As counseled above, at each section of the management manner, managers want assistance as a way to make constructive selections. This they call administration guidance. It does not consist of basically functional suggestions or technical suggestions, similar to packages of practices for rice or wheat cultivation. administration assistance is the counsel required through managers as they make their choices, such as the variety of extension personnel employed by category, their practicing requirements, career building plans, job descriptions, budgets, forecasts, benchmark surveys, reviews on socioeconomic circumstances of individuals served, and current amenities (Ramesh Babu & Singh, 1987).
The main goal of administration suggestions techniques is to provide administration suggestions to choice makers at a considerable number of degrees within the company. notably, in an agricultural extension firm, MIS is needed:
1. to plot the most constructive allocation of restheirces, for instance, the allocation of extension personnel beneath a T & V extension system, the want for communications and practising equipment and facilities, mobility, the quantities of required operational supplies
2. To choose bettheyen choice classes of action, even if to behavior a look at on the influence of the T & V equipment with the restheirces handy or employ an expert to investigate
three. To handle day-to-day operations, for example, evaluating the precise effects finished and those deliberate below the T & V gadget.
right here are counseled steps to comply with when designing a MIS for a countrywide agricultural extension gadget.
step one: Assessing suggestions needs for Planning, Monitoring, and evaluation
An investigation must be conducted into the kinds of decisions that extension managers ought to make. as an example, village extension worker's (VEWs) are looking for options to their complications from their supervisors. In turn, supervisors should be in a position to resolve these complications and to document how complications had been solved for future reference.
State-level managers additionally want counsel to resolve complications. they are concerned with enforcing extension programmes district by district. They want assistance on staffing, transport, research-extension linkages, workforce training actions, and successes (or lack of them) in fixing technical issues. remarks is required from container team of workers and farmers on farmer problems and on which suggested practices are effective. State-stage managers need to know anything in regards to the quantities, kinds, and combinations of media help (i.e., print, radio, tv) that have been used for a variety of efforts. They should comprehend if external factors have restrained the success of specific efforts akin to supply of credit or farm inputs and they want some assessment of farmers' responses to extension programmes (Raheja & Jai Krishna, 1991, p. 84).
Step Two: identifying the stages of tips groups, information Frequency, and content material
The number of tips businesses inside an agricultural extension corporation has to be determined because every neighborhood probably would require a distinct classification of tips. as an example, in India, the reorganized national agricultural extension device will also be grouped as proven in desk 1.
statistics processing incorporates determining every merchandise of information and systematically inserting it within a scheme that categorizes information objects on the basis of some ordinary characteristic or characteristic. data no longer geared up right into a significant demo can serve practically no useful intention to those that must use them to make selections. a laptop can assist in processing the facts easily. Rao (1985) counseled the use of computer systems in agricultural extension in India. He proposed that laptop programmes be focused on district and subdivisional stages. In that approach, advice accumulated will also be seen in terms of the crops that are prone to be grown, agroclimatic situations, soil kinds, irrigation amenities, materials of the farmers, and availability of a number of farm inputs.
Documentation (storage and retrieval) comprises storing items of information in an orderly manner. Storing counsel ability recording it on storage media from which it can also be made purchasable when mandatory.
Storage media are substances equivalent to regular office paper, magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, microfilms, film strips, and a number of other contraptions. as soon as the assistance is recorded on these storage media, the gadget can generate, on demand, tips required for making selections, solving problems, or performing analyses and computations. tips retrieval refers back to the potential to take various kinds of statistics within the storage media and to array counsel in some favored and meaningful layout. A safely designed storage and retrieval device suits the connected variables correctly and precisely. In some situations, it even suggests choice lessons of action for administration to take.
Presentation of tips should still be in a kind and structure proper to the wants of extension managers. commonly, tips is presented in studies, statistical summaries, analyses, and so on in the type of text, figures, charts, tables, and graphs. The presentation of tips should still be specific, clear, and attractive.
Step Three: guaranteeing equipment Flexibility and adaptableness
Flexibility capacity the ability to retrieve counsel from a gadget in whatever thing form it could be crucial through choice makers. hence, facts need to be accumulated in some aspect in order that they can be rearranged or summarized according to the wants of managers. but equipment design may still no longer be too complicated because it ought to first serve the wants of the bottom degrees of management (i.e., subdistrict) which are likely to be instrumental in accumulating important components of the customary facts. in addition, the system additionally need to serve the needs of the district, regional, state or provincial, and national ranges. for this reason, considerable care have to be taken in assessing what styles of information are required via administration on the distinct degrees. at the identical time, effort ought to be made to make sure that the information collected meets suitable specifications of accuracy, timeliness, and insurance for every stage.
an automated MIS gadget incorporates statistics just as a guide equipment does. It receives enter, approaches input, and provides the processed enter as output. Some input devices permit direct human-desktop verbal exchange, whereas others require facts to be recorded on an input medium akin to a magnetizable fabric (primarily covered plastic flexible or floppy disks and magnetic tapes). The keyboard of a computer connected without delay to a pc is an instance of a direct enter device. Use of automation makes it viable to save substantial portions of suggestions, to steer clear of lots of the error that locate their method into manual data, and to make calculations and comparisons that could be very nearly not possible in a manual gadget.
records are usually generated on the container level via transaction-processing programs, hotheyver as soon as the records are captured, any echelon alongside the organizational hierarchy can also use them, given that advice necessities have been neatly defined, acceptable programmes theyre applied, and a method has been organized for the sharing of the facts. this may suggest that the same statistics can also be used by way of different sets of programmes; therefore they distinguish bettheyen the database (a group of statistics) and the applications (a group of programmes). In a call guide gadget (DSS), this set of programmes is the mannequin base (keen & Morton, 1978).
The term database may confer with any collection of information that might serve an organizational unit. A database on a given discipline is a set of data on that discipline that observes three standards: comprehensiveness (completeness), nonredundancy, and appropriate structure. Comprehensiveness skill that all of the information in regards to the area are really latest within the database. Nonredundancy potential that every individual piece of information exists best as soon as in the database. acceptable constitution means that the records are saved in such a way as to reduce the charge of anticipated processing and storage (Awad & Gotterer, 1992).
The concept of a huge company database that will also be flexibly shared through a number of applications or mannequin bases has been realized through skill of software applications principally devised to perform such tasks. These applications, known as database management techniques (DBMSs), are available in the market under distinctive trade names corresponding to ORACLE, SYBASE, INGRES, FOXBASE, and dBASE.
the two main blocks that facilitate construction and use of MIS are DBMS and telecommunications. the former makes statistics integration possible, whereas the latter brings guidance nearer to the conclusion clients, who represent nodes in a telecommunication community. The notion of telecommunications implies that some geographical distance exists bettheyen the laptop theyb site and the users' areas and that statistics are electronically transmitted bettheyen them. far flung applications can be accomplished bettheyen two floors within the equal building, two places of work in the equal metropolis, two offices on the identical continent, or two areas on opposite aspects of the globe (Martin, 1990).
a very centralized information equipment handles all processing at a single computer theybsite, continues a single crucial database, has centralized construction of applications, gives principal technical features, units construction priorities centrally, and allocates computing device components centrally. The equipment's far flung clients are served with the aid of transporting enter and output information bodily or electronically.
a completely decentralized system may have no significant manage of system construction, no conversation links amongst self reliant computing gadgets, and stand-on my own processors and databases at a variety of sites. every unit funds its personal information-processing activities and is completely liable for all development and operation.
An knowledge of centralized information systems is that they deliver for standardization within the assortment of facts and the liberate of tips. There also are some economies of scale. A centralized gadget reduces the want for diverse hardware, software, house, personnel, and databases. It can be feasible to recruit more certified personnel in a imperative facility.
Observations point out that person motivation and delight are increased below a decentralized environment. here's attained because users consider greater involved and more in charge, programs are better custom-made to their specific wants, and they constantly get more desirable response time in activities operations as theyll as in requests for alterations.
It is probably going that for country wide agricultural extension methods, neither a completely centralized nor a completely decentralized gadget is beautiful. while it may theyll be valuable to decentralize hardware and software materials at distinct areas, the building of applications and provision of technical services may additionally improved be centralized.
The widespread use of personal computers and computer-based workstations has introduced with it the age of end-consumer computing. conclusion-person computing is a common time period for any counsel-processing endeavor carried out by direct conclusion users who really use terminals or microcomputers to access statistics and programmes. The manager as conclusion user may be supplied with potent software (like DBMS) for gaining access to information, developing fashions, and performing advice processing directly. This has introduced computing at once beneath the handle of the end users and eliminates their dependence on the information methods specialist and the rigidities of predesigned approaches. They may additionally now make advert hoc queries of tips and analyse it in quite a few methods. They may additionally write programmes, or may also frequently use competent-made programmes stored within the computing device, the usage of the computing vigtheir of a native computer or the mainframe to which it's related.
figure 2. a regular MIS for a country wide extension device.
A countrywide agricultural extension gadget is a nationwide device managed via the national govt. In India, agriculture is a state field beneath the division of potheyrs bettheyen the country wide and the state tiers. hotheyver, the national govt supplements the financial elements of the states and offers coordination on the countrywide stage. The state's administrative equipment is divided into districts, districts into subdivisions, subdivisions into blocks. A block is a bunch of villages and the primary unit for the administration of an agricultural extension programme. records accrued at the block level should be built-in at greater administrative levels to provide an built-in view on the district and state tiers to help planning, monitoring, and resolution making.
holding in view the necessities of the extension gadget and the funds constraints of the states, a customary design of the desktop-based mostly MIS is proven in figure 2.
although, the genuine design may additionally vary with the size of the state and other considerations. An integrated database for the total state can be supported by using a mainframe/minicomputer on the state headquarters. relevant programmes for the analysis of facts can be designed to provide an interactive determination aid gadget on the state stage. each and every district and subdivision may theyll be offered with a mini/micro computing device, depending on the quantity of facts to be handled. The computers in the districts and subdivisions can be networked with the state desktop. The native records can be saved and processed within the district/subdivision, and the shared statistics with appropriate level of aggregation can be transmitted to the state headquarters to update the integrated database. The districts and subdivisions would have direct access to the built-in database with relevant authorizations assigned to them via their passwords. The blocks can also have simplest the input-output terminals related to the subdivision computer to feed information to the subdivision and make on-line inquiries as and when quintessential.
in this chapter, they have described and described the fundamental concepts of a administration advice gadget. The characteristics of good suggestions, namely, relevance, timeliness, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, reliability, usability, exhaustiveness, and aggregation stage, have been described. The function of suggestions techniques in the method of determination making and the value of information theyre explained. 4 forms of MIS, specifically, databank tips gadget, predictive counsel device, determination-making assistance gadget, and decisiontaking advice equipment, have been presented. The role of MIS in management of agricultural extension programmes and the conceptual design of a MIS in an agricultural extension organization theyre described.
simple desktop ideas theyre defined. The advantages and drawbacks of centralized versus decentralized systems had been examined. The want for organizing databases and their integration and the need for programmes for choice evaluation to adapt a choice aid gadget had been explained. An evaluation of hardware, utility, and networking necessities for a regular laptop-based MIS for a countrywide agricultural extension gadget had been illustrated.
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